• Multiple Intelligence Theory is based on the work of Howard Gardener at Harvard, and his book Frames of Mind. Asked to study human intelligence, Gardener determined that all humans have a number of different intelligences (he identified seven; current theory recognizes eight with two others under consideration). Typically both individuals and cultures tend to develop some intelligences more than others. However, all intelligences are available to all of us and we can use our more developed intelligences to enhance our less developed intelligences. Multiple Intelligence Theory is important to educators because it suggests that effective instruction is that which empowers the human cognitive potential of all students.
• Teachers and peers don't always recognize creativity and imagination in young children. In fact many children don't enjoy or excel in school, finding it boring and mundane. History is full of examples of people who didn't take, or weren't given, the chance to experience the joy of learning during their school years. Did you know that . . .
• Albert Einstein was four years old before he could speak and seven before he could read.
• Beethoven's music teacher once said of him, "As a composer, he is hopeless."
• Leo Tolstoy flunked out of college.
• A newspaper editor fired Wait Disney because he had “no good ideas!”
• Louisa May Alcott was told by an editor that she would never write anything that had popular appeal.
• Winston Churchill failed the sixth grade.
• Are talented chess players, violinists, and athletes "intelligent" in their respective disciplines?
• Why these and other abilities are not accounted for on traditional IQ tests?
• Why is the term intelligence limited to such a narrow range of human endeavours?
• From these questions emerged The Theory of Multiple Intelligence. Stated simply, it challenges psychology's definition of intelligence as a general ability that can be measured by a single IQ score. Instead, this theory describes eight intelligences that people use to solve problems and create products relevant to the societies in which they live.
• The Theory of Multiple Intelligence asserts that individuals who have a high level of aptitude in one intelligence do not necessarily have a similar aptitude in other intelligence. For example, a young person who demonstrates an impressive level of musical intelligence may be far less skilled when it comes to bodily-kinesthetic or logical-mathematical intelligence. Perhaps that seems obvious, but it's important to recognize that this notion stands in sharp contrast to the traditional (and still dominant) view of intelligence as a general ability that can be measured along a single scale and summarized by a single number.
• Eight Multiple Intelligences put forwarded by Dr. Howard Gardner.
People in this category are usually extroverts and are characterized by their sensitivity to others' moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. They communicate effectively and empathize easily with others, and may be either leaders or followers. They typically learn best by working with others and often enjoy discussions and debates.
Those who are strongest in this intelligence are typically introverts and prefer to work alone. They show high introspective and self-reflective capacities. They are usually highly self-aware and capable of understanding their own emotions, goals and motivations. They learn best when allowed to concentrate on the subject by themselves. They often have an affinity for thought based pursuits such as philosophy. There is often a high level of perfectionism associated with this intelligence .
This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning, and numbers. While it is often assumed that those with this intelligence naturally excel in mathematics, chess, computer programming and other logical or numerical activities, a more accurate definition places emphasis on traditional mathematical ability and more reasoning capabilities, abstract patterns of recognition, scientific thinking and investigation, and the ability to perform complex calculations.
People with verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates. They tend to learn best by reading, taking notes, listening to lectures, and discussion or debate. They are also frequently skilled at explaining, teaching and oration or persuasive speaking. Those with high verbal-linguistic intelligence learn foreign languages very easily as they have high verbal memory and recall, and have an ability to understand and manipulate syntax and structure.
People who have high kinesthetical intelligence are generally adept at physical activities such as sports or dance and often prefer activities which utilize movements. They usually enjoy acting or performing, and in general they are good at building and making things. They often learn best by physically doing something, rather than reading or hearing about it. Those with strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence seem to use what might be termed muscle memory i.e. they remember things through their body rather than through their words (verbal memory) or images (visual memory). They havethe skill and dexterity for the fine motor skills that are required for dancing, athletics, surgery, craft and other movement function
Those who have a high level of Musical- Rhythmic or Emotional intelligence display greater sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. They normally have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch, and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. Since there is a strong auditory component to this intelligence, those who are strongest in it may learn best via lecture. In addition, they will often use songs or rhythms to learn and memorize information, and may work best with music playing in the background.
People with strong visual-spatial intelligence are typically very good at visualizing and mentally manipulating objects. Those with strong spatial intelligence are often proficient at solving puzzles. They have a strong visual memory and are often artistically inclined. Those with visual-spatial intelligence also generally have a very good sense of direction and may also have very good hand-eye coordination, although this is normally seen as characteristics of the Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence.
Those with high Naturalistic Intelligence are said to have greater sensitivity to nature and their place within it, the ability to nurture and grow things, and have greater ease in caring for, taming and interacting with animals. They may also be able to discern changes or fluctuations in their natural surroundings. They are also good at recognizing and classifying different species. It generally involves a keen observation of environment and the surrounding and the ability to classify things as well. "Naturalists" learn best when the subject involves collecting and analysing, or is closely related to something prominent in nature. Naturalistic learners would learn more through being outside or in a kinesthetic way by exploring nature, making collections of objects, studying them and grouping them, also by using sensory skills -sound, smell, taste and touch.